In 1954, Lê Duẩn conceived a plan to promote communist insurgency in the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam). Believing they could win, he argued for open war with the United States. A few months later, communist leadership in the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) approved the plan and put Nguyễn Hữu Xuyên in command of military operation in South Vietnam. The National Liberation Front, often called the Viet Cong, was the political organization in South Vietnam and Cambodia created to spread communism to South Vietnam. The military arm of the Nation Liberation Front (Viet Cong), called the People’s Liberation Armed Force of South Vietnam (PLAF), recruited soldiers from South Vietnam, but also relied heavily on soldiers from North Vietnam. The PLAF consisted of guerrilla and regular military units.