Rootin' Tootin' Raspberry

Captain Roger Hawkins, U.S. Army, 1969

A member of the U.S. Army 101st Airborne Division sets smoke for a helicopter extraction near Tam Kỳ in the Quảng Tín Province. Smoke grenades of varying colors were used throughout the war to send signals for helicopter landings, bombing targets, and other tasks—but there was no set color code. Instead, pilots were given a radio code to look for a certain signal (e.g. “Lefty Lemon” for yellow smoke).