The U.S. Marine Corps recognizes November 10 as its official birthday; on that day in 1775, the Second Continental Congress passed a resolution to raise two battalions of Continental Marines.
After the American Revolution, however, the Navy and Marines were all but disbanded. In 1789, President John Adams signed the bill which officially created a standing U.S. Marine Corps. The Marines traditionally served as soldiers aboard Navy ships. The role of the Marines expanded to include engagement in major land battles during World War I, and to spearhead amphibious invasions during World War II. Two well-known Marine land battles are Belleau Wood (1918) and Iwo Jima (1945). The motto of the Marine Corps is Semper Fidelis, meaning “Always Loyal.”